By Harvey Leff, Andrew F. Rex
Over one hundred thirty years in the past, James Clerk Maxwell brought his hypothetical "demon" as a problem to the scope of the second one legislations of thermodynamics. Fascination with the demon continued in the course of the improvement of statistical and quantum physics, details thought, and desktop technology, and hyperlinks were verified among Maxwell's demon and every of those disciplines. The demon's seductive caliber makes it beautiful to actual scientists, engineers, machine scientists, biologists, psychologists, and historians and philosophers of technological know-how. because the e-book of Maxwell's Demon: Entropy, details, Computing in 1990, Maxwell's demon has been the topic of renewed and elevated curiosity through a variety of researchers within the fields pointed out above. up to date and increased, Maxwell's Demon 2: Entropy, Classical and Quantum info, Computing keeps a number of the seminal papers that seemed within the first variation, together with the unique suggestions of James Clerk Maxwell and William Thomson; a ancient overview through Martin Klein; and key articles through Leo Szilard, Leon Brillouin, Rolf Landauer, and Charles Bennett that ended in new branches of study at the demon. This moment variation comprises more recent articles by means of Landauer, Bennett, and others, with regards to Landauer's precept; connections with quantum mechanics; algorithmic details; and the thermodynamics and bounds of computation. The publication additionally comprises separate bibliographies: an alphabetical directory by means of writer and a chronological bibliography that's annotated through the editors and comprises chosen fees from the books and articles indexed. The bibliography has greater than doubled in measurement because ebook of the 1st variation and now comprises over 570 entries.
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Extra resources for Maxwell's Demon 2: Entropy, Classical and Quantum Information, Computing
1] . ˆ + (x, p H ˆ) . . 9) r Thus we have formally, and exactly, converted the master equation to a Schroedinger equation. This has the substantial advantage that we can apply well-known approximations in quantum mechanics to obtain solutions to the master equation. B. approximation valid for semiclassical cases, those for which Planck’s constant formally approaches zero. 8) is that of large volumes (large numbers of particles). 10) where Sn will be shown to be the classical action of a ﬂuctuational trajectory accessible from the nth stable stationary state.
Acknowledgement. This chapter is based largely on . References 1. B. C. M. Hunt, A. Su´ arez, J. Ross, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4548–4562 (1995) 2. I. E. H. Weiss, Stochastic Processes in Chemical Physics: The Master Equation (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1977). W. G. van Kampen, Stochastic Processes in Physics and Chemistry (NorthHolland, New York, 1992) 3. R. Kubo, K. Matsuo, K. Kitahara, J. Stat. Phys. 9, 51–96 (1973) 4. K. Kitahara, Adv. Chem. Phys. 29, 85–111 (1973) 5. I. Dykman, E. Mori, J. M. Hunt, J.
In all these three case φ provides a solution to the time independent master equation. 17) is zero at stationary states, increases on removal from stable stationary states and decreases from any initial given state on its approach to the nearest stable stationary state along a deterministic kinetic trajectory. These speciﬁcations make φ a Liapunov function in the vicinity of stable stationary states, which indicates the direction of the deterministic motion. Hence for every variation from a stable stationary state we have (δφ)pX s ,pY s > 0.