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By Walter Tape

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Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic study Series.

Archdeacon caught was once seeing halos shaped in moonlight. Their sunlight hours opposite numbers are unusually universal, not just within the arctic yet in temperate climates besides. Many halos are attainable, forming arcs of coloured or white mild nearly anyplace within the sky. Their occasional brilliance, type, and unique shapes have inspired skywatchers for centuries.

This ebook introduces halos and attempts to express a few of their good looks. It tells a lot of what's identified approximately them: how they come up, how such a lot of are attainable, and why a few are infrequent, whereas others take place each few days or so. No such insights, after all, are helpful for the joy of a halo reveal; certainly, an problematic reveal is certainly one of Nature's wonders. however, figuring out can upload to leisure, specifically because the makings of an exceptional show become as extraordinary because the show itself.

Chapter 1 Halos from Plate Crystals (pages 1–12): Walter Tape
Chapter 2 Halos from Column Crystals (pages 13–27): Walter Tape
Chapter three Halos from Parry orientated Crystals (pages 29–44): Walter tape
Chapter four The 22° and forty six° Halos (pages 45–51): Walter Tape
Chapter five Why Are the infrequent Halos infrequent? (pages 53–57): Walter Tape
Chapter 6 The position of solar Elevation (pages 58–68): Walter Tape
Chapter 7 Subhorizon Halos (pages 69–76): Walter Tape
Chapter eight chilly climate Halos (page 77): Walter Tape
Chapter nine Organizing the Halos (pages 78–81): Walter Tape
Chapter 10 Pyramidal Crystals and strange Radius round Halos (pages 82–94): Walter Tape
Chapter eleven Hevel'S Halo and different Mysteries (pages 95–104): Walter Tape

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Extra resources for Atmospheric Halos

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64 CRYSTALS Figure 2-11. (Display2-3) Figure 2-12. See AppendixG for other,smallcrystalpopulations usedin thesimulation. Copyright American Geophysical Union 19 Antarctic Research Series 20 Atmospheric Halos Vol. 64 ATMOSPHERIC HALOS Figure 2-13. Ray path forthe supralateral arc. ! Figure 2-14. Ray path forthe infralateral arcs. Figure 2-15. Two common ray paths for the parhelic circle when caused by singly oriented columns. (Left) External reflection. (Right) Internal reflection. The ray enters a prism face, reflects internally from abasal face, and exits the prism face opposite the entry face.

Other crystal shapesand orientations were also used in making the simulation. For a comparable simulationusingsingly oriented columnsalone, see Figure C-13 of AppendixC. Copyright American Geophysical Union Antarctic Research Series Atmospheric Halos HALOS FROM COLUMN Vol. 64 CRYSTALS 23 Figure 2-19. 0o. The resultinghalos are morediffusethanthosein the real display. Figure 2-20. Sunwardview, Display2-4. The shortstreakswere madeby light refractedfrom crystalsclose to the camera. Copyright American Geophysical Union Antarctic Research Series 24 Atmospheric Halos ATMOSPHERIC HALOS (Upper) Wegener arc.

Figure 2-24. View lookingaway from the sun,Display 2-4. CompareFigureC-21. Copyright American Geophysical Union Antarctic Research Series Atmospheric Halos 26 ATMOSPHERIC HALOS Tricker arc. The Tricker arc is alsofaint in the photographs, the bestbeing Figure 2-24. Their geometryis muchlike that of subhelicarc ray paths,exceptthatthe Tricker arc pathshavean internalreflectionfrom a basalface. Like raysfor the subhelicarc and for 120ø parhelia,Tricker arc rays are deviatedby 120ø as seenfrom the endof the crystal.

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