By Hitchcock F.L.
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Extra resources for [Article] A Classification of Quadratic Vector Functions
Laminar Flow Laminar flow is also referred to as streamline or viscous flow. These terms are descriptive of the flow because, in laminar flow, (1) layers of water flowing over one another at different speeds with virtually no mixing between layers, (2) fluid particles move in definite and observable paths or streamlines, and (3) the flow is characteristic of viscous (thick) fluid or is one in which viscosity of the fluid plays a significant part. Turbulent Flow Turbulent flow is characterized by the irregular movement of particles of the fluid.
One accepted technique for determining the two-phase friction loss based on the single-phase loss involves the two-phase friction multiplier (R), which is defined as the ratio of the two-phase head loss divided by the head loss evaluated using saturated liquid properties. R Rev. 0 Hf , two phase (3-18) Hf , saturated liquid Page 41 HT-03 TWO-PHASE FLUID FLOW Fluid Flow where: R = two-phase friction multiplier (no units) Hf , two-phase = two-phase head loss due to friction (ft) Hf , saturated liquid = single-phase head loss due to friction (ft) The friction multiplier (R) has been found to be much higher at lower pressures than at higher pressures.
When this shockwave reaches the valve, due to the momentum of the fluid, the pipe wall will begin to contract. This contraction is transmitted back to the source, which places the pressure in the piping below that of the static pressure of the source. These pressure waves will travel back and forth several times until the fluid friction dampens the alternating pressure waves to the static pressure of the source. Normally, the entire hammer process takes place in under one second. The initial shock of suddenly stopped flow can induce transient pressure changes that exceed the static pressure.