By Nathan Hodge
In may perhaps 2003, President George W. Bush declared victory in Iraq. yet whereas we gained the struggle, we catastrophically misplaced the peace. Our failure triggered a basic swap in our international coverage. faced with the shortcomings of "shock and awe," the U.S. army shifted its concentration to "stability operations": counterinsurgency and the rebuilding of failed states. In below a decade, overseas assistance has turn into militarized; humanitarianism has been armed.
Combining contemporary heritage and firsthand reporting, Armed Humanitarians lines how the options of nation-building got here into fashion, and the way, evangelized via imagine tanks, executive seminars, and the click, this new doctrine took root contained in the Pentagon and the country division. Following this awesome scan in armed social paintings because it performs out from Afghanistan and Iraq to Africa and Haiti, Nathan Hodge exposes the problems of translating those formidable new theories into motion.
Ultimately seeing this new period in international kinfolk as a noble yet improper test, he indicates how armed humanitarianism lines our assets, deepens our reliance on outsourcing and personal contractors, and results in perceptions of a brand new imperialism, arguably a significant factor in any variety of new conflicts world wide. As we try to construct countries, we may perhaps in reality be weakening our own.
Nathan Hodge is a Washington, D.C.-based author who makes a speciality of safety and nationwide safeguard. He has mentioned from Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Russia, and several international locations within the center East and previous Soviet Union. he's the writer, with Sharon Weinberger, of A extended family Vacation, and his paintings has seemed in Slate, the Financial Times, Foreign Policy, and plenty of different newspapers and magazines.
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Additional info for Armed Humanitarians: The Rise of the Nation Builders
The British obtained many slaves from the African merchant families of Bonny and Calabar, who were traders rather than warriors. They bought their slaves from inland and sold them on to the Europeans. Slave ships anchored in the Bonny River while a human cargo was assembled. Easy targets The Africans who were victims of the slave trade often lived far from the coast. They were easy prey since they did not have European-supplied guns and generally lived in small villages. The search for slaves inevitably ranged wider and wider as some areas became depopulated and the demand for slaves increased.
EUROPE Québec Rome New York Constantinople Lisbon Algiers Tangier Charleston Alexandria New Orleans A T L A N T I C O C E A N Mexico City CHAPTER TWO N O RT H AMERICA THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE London A F R I C A Saint-Louis Cacheu Cartagena PACIFIC OCEAN Accra Cape Coast Paramaribo SOUTH AMERICA Ouidah Calabar Loango Pernambuco Luanda Benguela Salvador Lima Atlantic trade routes This map shows where enslaved Africans came from and went to. Slaves from the northern ports on the West African coast often ended up in the Caribbean and United States.
BACKGROUND TO SLAVERY Capital city English colonists in North America The colonies established by England in North America were either founded by enterprising wealthy people in search of profit or by independent-minded religious groups. The Pilgrims and the Puritans who settled in New England in the 1620s and 1630s were chiefly interested in the freedom to practice their Protestant faiths as they saw fit. These New Englanders did import enslaved Africans, but in far smaller numbers than the colonies farther south.