Download An end to global warming by Laurence O Williams PDF

By Laurence O Williams

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There are finite amounts of fossil fuels and we will stop using them when they are gone. For petroleum, exhaustion of modest cost supplies will occur in 20 to 30 years and natural gas will be gone soon after. When oil and natural gas are depleted, it will be possible to switch to coal and oil shale for as long as 100 years, but then they too will be used up. If we take the route of continued exploitation of hydrocarbons for energy, it is not clear if humanity can survive the environmental damage, the material shortages or the competition for resources.

Solar thermal technology has many problems. These are, cost of facilities, large areas of land required for the hardware, unrehability of sunlight, and potential high continuous maintenance cost for cleaning. It is clear that the cost of energy must increase significantly before solar thermal plants become economical. Even when other fuel costs become high enough that solar is economical, the intermittent energy production of the solar collectors will make their use very inconvenient. It should be noted that all of the demonstration plants are located in the southwest United States where solar energy is more reliably available than in other parts of the country.

The largest impact of hydrocarbon chemicals on agriculture is in the production of hydrogen for the synthetic manufacture of ammonia. Natural gas (methane) and other light hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butane, etc. are reacted with water at high temperature to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen are separated and the hydrogen is reacted with nitrogen extracted from the atmosphere. This is the Haber-Bosch process used to produce ammonia. In 1990 fifteen billion kilograms of ammonia (about 60 kilograms for each person in the United States) was utilized as agricultural fertilizer.

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