By David E. McNabb
A Comparative heritage of trade and undefined, quantity I bargains a subjective assessment of ways the cultural, social and fiscal associations of trade and advanced in industrialized countries to supply the establishment we now understand as company enterprise.
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Additional resources for A Comparative History of Commerce and Industry, Volume I: Four Paths to an Industrialized World
It may have been plowed once or twice during the year to keep down weeds. In the following year, the fallow field was rotated. Without fertilizers or legumes, leaving the land fallow for a year was the only way to renew its productivity. By the fourteenth century the three-field process came into use, and was soon adopted on most farms in Britain, as well as in France, Germany, and the Low Lands. Under this system, tillable soil was divided into thirds. One field was planted in the spring, the second in the fall, and the third left fallow.
Birth of an Industrial Society Events after roughly 1760 changed society in Britain forever (McCloskey 1981). The most far reaching of these were the advent steam power and the resulting Industrial Revolution and the new turnpike and canal networks that facilitated production and distribution. Britain was on its way to transforming from a settled agrarian society to a turbulent industrial one. The hope of bettering one’s position in life, together with a diminishing need for agricultural workers after the 1760s, drew more and more people to growing urban centers like Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham, as well as to the largest of 34 A C o m pa r at i ve Hi s t o ry o f C o m m e r c e a n d I n du s t r y all, London.
Later, rum shipped north to New England from the West Indies was added, as were pig iron and naval stores from New England to the mother country. New England salted cod also became an important product shipped first to British ports and then re-exported to Catholic countries in Europe and beyond. American tobacco and cotton were also becoming important exports to Britain. 1. Of note are the relatively constant trade levels between continental European destinations; a tripling of trade with Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man, and the British West Indies; and steep drop of trade with the North American colonies during the revolution.